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Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (Persian: محي الدين محمد‎)( (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the takhallus Aurangzeb (Urdu, Persian: اورنگ‌زیب‎ "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (Urdu, Persian: عالمگير‎ "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor. Widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor, his reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707.Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist during his reign, and the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, ruling over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, and he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of $450 million (more than ten times that of his contemporary Louis XIV of France), or £38,624,680 (2,879,469,894 rupees) in 1690. Under his reign, the Mughal Empire surpassed China to become the world's largest economy, worth over $90 billion, nearly a quarter of world GDP in 1700.Aurangzeb has been subject to controversy and criticism for his policies that abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his introduction of the Jizya tax, destruction of Hindu temples, and the executions of Maratha Kingdom ruler Sambhaji and the ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. →Wikipedia

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